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IBH
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Urticaria
Industrial Manufacturing
Pruritus
Industrial Manufacturing
Asthma
Preclinical Safety & Pilot Studies
Osteoarthritis
Preclinical Safety & Pilot Studies
Eos. Keratitis
Preclinical Safety & Pilot Studies
IBD
Preclinical Safety & Pilot Studies
Dermatitis
Industrial Manufacturing
Granuloma
Industrial Manufacturing

Summer Eczema

Sweet itch, also known as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), is the most common allergic skin disease in horses. It manifests as chronically recurring seasonal allergic dermatitis.

What is the trigger?

After a long list of suspicious triggers in the past, including fungi, parasite larvae in the stomach, parasites in the skin, diet, climate, unsanitary conditions, kidney, liver or spleen dysfunction, too little exercise or food allergies, the Triggers identified and scientifically confirmed: proteins from the salivary gland that are produced during insect bites of the genus Culicoides spp . be transmitted. Culicoides spp. übertragen werden.

Insect saliva is a complex mixture that is released with its salivary gland proteins during an insect sting to prevent blood clotting. To date, more than 700 species of mosquitoes of the genus Culicoides have been described, of which about 130 are bloodsucking

Summer eczema is typically described as a classic type I allergy.

Although sweet itch is the best studied and characterized allergic disease in horses, treatment options are still poor and far from satisfactory. That is why we make it our task to put an end to the suffering by developing a vaccine that treats summer eczema therapeutically and prevent it prophylactically.

Symptoms?

Clinical signs are severe itching, which leads to severe scratching of the base of the tail, mane, withers and stomach. This leads to hair breakage, lichen formation on the skin and crust formation. Affected lesions are characterized by thickening of the upper three layers of the skin, stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis combined with fibrosis. In addition, there is evidence of acute inflammation, characterized by edema and inflammatory cell accumulation, located in perivascular clusters in deeper parts of the dermis.

Affected horses suffer from bald to bleeding wounds and sometimes even skin ulcers, which are caused by the severe itching, throughout the summer season. Mites, bacteria, or fungi can cause secondary infections in these lesions. This additionally promotes the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the affected lesions and accelerates the inflammation.

Who is affected?

Since no mosquitoes of the genus Culicoides Culicoides have been found in Iceland so far , exported Icelandic horses are particularly susceptible and a disease prevalence of more than 50% has been observed for exports to Europe. The prevalence of summer eczema increases significantly with age. Horses introduced between the ages of seven and 15 have an extremely high risk of 96%. They usually develop eczema in their third or fourth season outside of Iceland.

Basically all races can suffer from sweet itch. In addition to Icelandic horses, it was mainly described for quarter horses, thoroughbreds, Arabs, warm-blooded horses, draft horses, Frisians, Shire horses and various pony breeds. Around 10% of horses worldwide are affected by sweet itch, while the incidence of diseases with the geographical distribution of Culicoides spp . related. Culicoides spp. zusammenhängt.

Although sweet itch is the best studied and characterized allergic disease in horses, treatment options are still poor and far from satisfactory. That is why we make it our task to put an end to the suffering by developing a vaccine that treats summer eczema therapeutically and prevent it prophylactically.

Recurrent Urticaria

Recurrent urticaria, also known as nettle rash or hives, is a very common dermatological disease in the horse. The skin changes appear suddenly and can go away within a day. In some cases, however, the lesions persist for a long time.

What is the trigger?

The pathophysiology of urticaria in horses is very complex and has not yet been fully understood. Urticaria is a clinical symptom with a variety of possible causes. Both immunological and non-immunological triggers can lead to degranulation of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes, which results in the release of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators. This leads to increased permeability of the blood vessels, inflammation and loss of protein in the skin, which ultimately causes the typical skin changes

Immunological hypersensitivity reactions to injected (medication, insect bites), ingested with food or inhaled antigens occur most frequently. Physical triggers such as heat, cold or pressure are less often the cause of urticaria. However, increased exposure and unexplained idiopathic triggers can also lead to urticaria.

Symptoms?

Typical symptoms are sudden edematous wheals on the skin and / or the mucous membrane. These wheals are mostly flat, steeply sloping nodes of various diameters that appear symmetrically on both sides of the neck, body and upper limbs. But they can also appear in the form of circular or serpentine-like wheals, linear, oozing or, if several wheals converge, as so-called “giant wheals”. They vary in size from about 0.5 cm to 15 cm. The wheals are typically easy to indent and the fingerprint remains in the skin for a few seconds. Itching can accompany it, while hair loss is atypical and only occurs with weeping wheals. Wheals,

Who is affected?

Of all domesticated animals, urticaria is the most common in horses. All age groups can be affected, but horses 1-10 years of age are most commonly affected. There is no known gender predisposition. Thoroughbreds and Arabs are more likely to show urticaria due to inhaled antigens.

In horses, it is very difficult to differentiate between acute and chronic urticaria. Recurrent urticaria in humans is when the urticaria occurs at least twice a week for 6 weeks. In horses, the occurrence of urticaria at least twice or the recurrence of urticaria after cortisone therapy was recently defined as recurrent urticaria

Although most horses with urticaria respond very well to the use of cortisone or antihistamines, if the cause of the urticaria cannot be eliminated, they will often relapse once therapy is stopped.

Equine Asthma

The two inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract "Recurrent Airway Obstruction" (RAO) and "Inflammatory Airway Disease" (IAD) have many similarities with human asthma. Therefore, the term equine asthma was recently introduced for these two diseases, in which the IAD represents the mild to moderate and the RAO the severe form of the disease.

What is the trigger?

Various influences, such as environmental factors, the attitude, the season and also preventive medical treatments contribute to the development of equine asthma. Horses that are kept in stalls with poor ventilation are exposed to high levels of dust particles, endotoxins, fungal spores, mold spores and harmful gases. Inhaling these allergens activates the immune system and causes inflammation of the lower airways. Since dry hay and straw can contain very large amounts of dust and mold spores, feeding them dry hay and straw is the greatest risk factor for the development or worsening of equine asthma. Another form of equine asthma is summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD), caused by allergens like pollen in spring and summer. The involvement of viral or bacterial infections in the development of equine asthma has not yet been clarified and there is still no scientific evidence of this.

Symptoms?

Equine asthma causes inflammation and narrowing of the lower airways with increased mucus production. This leads to a structural remodeling and obstruction of the airways, which in the advanced stage can lead to an irreversible loss of lung capacity. Horses with IAD often show only mild clinical symptoms such as decreased performance or occasional coughing. The horses usually do not show any difficult breathing at rest. In contrast, horses with an RAO are much more severely affected. They show difficult breathing at rest (abdominal pressure), often cough in the stable and under exertion and show a clear performance weakness. Horses with an RAO often have whitish to yellowish nasal discharge. Body temperature can be increased during an acute asthma attack.

Who is affected?

Lower respiratory tract diseases are the most common cause of underperformance in sport horses. Inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract affect approximately 10-20% of all adult horses. The frequency and severity of the disease increase with age and housing.

Horses of all ages can get an IAD. However, younger horses are often affected. Whereas RAO only occurs in older horses (> 7 years).

The RAO develops over several years, which leads to an irreversible remodeling of the airways. In contrast, IAD can be completely reversible again. Not all horses that develop IAD inevitably get an RAO over time, but horses with an IAD are at increased risk of developing an RAO in the future

Eosinophilic Keratitis

Eosinophilic keratitis is an inflammatory disease of the cornea. The conjunctiva and the third eyelid are also often affected. This leads to pain in the eye and also to impaired vision. Eosinophilic keratitis has already been described in various animal species and has been studied primarily in humans and cats. Equine eosinophilic keratitis was only described for the first time in 1994 and has come into focus in the last 10 years due to its increased occurrence.

What is the trigger?

The exact origin of eosinophilic keratitis is still unclear. It is believed that a hypersensitivity reaction to parasites or environmental allergens is the cause. Environmental factors such as geographic location, weather conditions, seasonal plants and pollen act as allergic triggers. Insects also appear to contribute to the pathogenesis, as it has been shown that wearing fly masks and applying fly repellants leads to the alleviation of clinical symptoms. Hypersensitivity reactions to parasites of the genus Onchocerca or Thelezia that occur in the eye were also considered as a possible cause. The role of the equine herpes virus in the development of eosinophilic keratitis is still unclear.

Symptoms?

The horses show increased eyelid closure, increased lacrimation, reddening of the conjunctiva and corneal defects in the affected eye. Yellowish eye discharge and yellow / white deposits or plaques on the cornea are found in approx. 25% of cases. Any non-infected, non-healing corneal ulcer should be examined cytologically to rule out eosinophilic keratitis. The clinical signs and the detection of eosinophils in the cytological examination of the cornea confirm the diagnosis. The most common consequence of the disease is mild to moderate scarring on the cornea, which can impair vision. Pigmentation and melanosis are often seen during the healing process, but disappear as soon as the inflammation has healed.

Who is affected?

The disease occurs predominantly during the summer months, with highest prevalence in July, followed by June, and August. There is no sex, breed or age predisposition, although in one case series mares were more frequently affected. In humans, one third of affected patients have concurrently multiple atopic diseases, with asthma being the most common. In some horses, concurrent urticaria was anecdotally described but the link with eosinophilic keratitis in those cases is still unclear. Generally, affected horses are in good health, correctly vaccinated, dewormed and they have followed an appropriate diet at the onset of disease.

Chronic Allergic Pruritus

The most common cause of allergic itching in horses is a hypersensitivity reaction to insects during the warmer months of the year. Other allergies that can cause itching are atopic dermatitis and food and contact allergies. During these allergic reactions, the immune system releases molecules that interact directly with the nerve fibers and thus trigger the itching.

What is the trigger?

Three factors contribute to the development of allergic itching: the genetic makeup of the patient, contact with the allergen and dysregulation of the immune system. Environmental factors such as housing, mold awareness, large numbers of insect bites, parasite infestation, viral infections and vaccinations with modified live vaccines can influence the occurrence of atopic dermatitis. Contact with the triggering allergen leads to an immediate and a delayed type 1 hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system, which results in mast cell degranulation. The release of inflammatory and vasodilator substances leads to the typical eosinophilic inflammation of the affected areas of the skin and itching. Depending on the cause of the allergic itching, type 1 (atopic dermatitis) or type 4 (contact allergy) can lead to hypersensitivity reactions to the respective clinical picture. The ingredients of many locally applied drugs, insect repellants, care products, etc. can cause contact allergies.

Symptoms?

Horses with a hypersensitivity reaction to insect bites show nodular skin thickening, which can be accompanied by crust formation and hair loss. Areas of the skin affected by itching will be rubbed sore and the skin may be thickened from the constant scratching. Some horses develop nettle rash at the same time. Horsefly and deer lice bites usually result in nodular ulcerative lesions. Due to the chronic itching, horses lick, scratch and bite the affected areas of skin and often injure themselves as a result. These self-induced injuries can become inflamed or infected with bacteria and / or fungi. In the case of atopic dermatitis, horses usually show the itching on both sides and symmetrically. Common locations are the head, ears, neck and legs, but the mane, back and tail can also be affected. The clinical symptoms are hair loss, redness, sore skin with small nodules or pustules, nettle rash, thickened skin, ulceration and flaking. Even horses with a contact allergy can show chronic itching and skin changes due to long-term contact with the allergen. The clinical symptoms of feed allergies are persistent or recurrent nettle rash and itching with resulting skin changes. Ulceration and scaling. Even horses with a contact allergy can show chronic itching and skin changes due to long-term contact with the allergen. The clinical symptoms of feed allergies are persistent or recurrent nettle rash and itching with resulting skin changes. Ulceration and scaling. Even horses with a contact allergy can show chronic itching and skin changes due to long-term contact with the allergen. The clinical symptoms of feed allergies are persistent or recurrent nettle rash and itching with resulting skin changes.

Who is affected?

All stinging insects such as Culicoides mosquitoes, stable flies, horn flies, black flies, horseflies and deer lice flies can lead to a hypersensitivity reaction. Each of these insects stings the horse in its specific areas of the body and also has very different requirements for an optimal environment. Atopic animals show clinical symptoms much earlier (1-4 years) than horses with acquired hypersensitivity. Depending on the triggering allergen, the horses show the clinical symptoms only seasonally or all year round. Food allergies are very rare in horses. Contact allergies occur when a protein is absorbed through the skin, which then leads to an allergic reaction in the body. Skin changes can occur as early as 5-6 hours after contact with the allergen.

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